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Uzhhorod brick and tile factory

On April 20, 1944, at 9 o'clock in the morning, following the order of the mayor of the city, László Megoj, the Jews began to be evicted from their homes. They were allowed to take only the clothes that were already on the person, one set of underwear, 50 kilograms of luggage, and food for at least 14 days. Next, the Jews were transferred to the gathering place, and from there to camp, that is, the former brick and tile factory.
All other Jews who were not picked up had to stay at home. Otherwise, weapons would have been used against them. The local population was ordered to facilitate the eviction of the Jews and to be ready to do the work that was connected with it.
During all this time, the Jews tried to do or were looking for hiding places. In this, they were helped at their peril and risk by caring residents of Uzhhorod of other faiths. But, unfortunately, it was not always effective. The gendarmerie and police found everyone. Jews were sent to the ghetto, and their confiscated property was taken to the closed central synagogue of Uzhhorod.
On the third day of the eviction, 4,000 Uzhgorod Jews and more than 8,000 Jews from other cities were already in the ghetto. On the fourth day on the territory, there was not enough space for the brick and tile factory. April 27 was the last day of eviction.
From the middle of May, Jews were sent to the concentration camps of Auschwitz, Dachau, Birkenau, and others. According to the calculations of Doctor of Historical Sciences Omelyan Dovganych, 90% of the Jewish population of Transcarpathia was destroyed, and this is approximately 85 to 105 thousand Jews.


In 1944, the front line began to approach Transcarpathia. The terror of the Nazis was joined by aerial reconnaissance, and later air raids by the Soviet army. The population hid from dangers in their own homes, at neighbors' homes, at those who cared, as well as in bomb shelters.

In Uzhgorod, in particular, bomb shelters were located in the "Owl's Nest", the Royal Basement, the crypt of the Holy Cross Cathedral Greek Catholic Cathedral, the wine cellars of modern Olbrakht Street, under the district administration, etc.

Uzhhorod Gymnasium 
and Bridges

On October 28, 1944, as is known, the expulsion of the Nazi occupiers from the territory of Ukraine was officially completed. What happened in Uzhhorod a few days before? Already at the beginning of October, all important Hungarian officials were taken out of the city.
The Uzhgorod gymnasium was turned into an infirmary. On October 26, all the wounded who could get up and leave were ordered to leave in order to catch the last train to Košice (a city in Slovakia). Those who could not go were left behind.
On the night of October 26-27, Soviet troops directly approached the city, and Hungarians and Germans mined important strategic places at night: bridges and the railway station. The latter was saved thanks to the courage of the train driver Mihai Reika, who dissuaded the soldiers from detonation. But three bridges in Uzhhorod were torn down one after the other. Among them is the first iron bridge, which was built in 1898. Later, the bridge was rebuilt and is now known to everyone as a pedestrian bridge.
On the night of October 29, 1944, Hungarian and German troops tried to regain control of the city, but without success.


The Central Hasidic Synagogue is one of the most tragic buildings in Uzhhorod. It was built according to the project of architects D. Papp and S. Ferenczi in 1904. This is the first reinforced concrete building in Uzhhorod, built in the neo-Moorish style, with the use of red and yellow clinker bricks as the outer covering of the walls.
During its more than a century of history, the building remembers several destructions. In particular, the German government changed it from the inside, and the Soviet government changed it from the outside.
In the last years of the Second World War, the Nazis turned the synagogue into a stable, where, until recently, the personal belongings of Jews deported to the ghetto were stored. The Jewish community could not resist this because of persecution and fear of being sent to a concentration camp.
After the arrival of the Soviet troops, the fence around the synagogue was dismantled, a portrait of Lenin was installed instead of the Star of David, and reconstruction was carried out, so to speak. It was
it was decided to hand over the building to the Ministry of Culture of the Ukrainian SSR. Thus, in the mid-1950s, a philharmonic society appeared in Uzhhorod.
Jews who returned from the concentration camps went to protests and tried to prevent the builders from destroying the holy place. But it was all in vain.
Currently, this building is still the Philharmonic Hall and, unfortunately, is in a state of disrepair. For many years, there have been discussions about its restoration and the possible return of the synagogue building to the Jewish community.
It should be noted that there were several synagogues in Uzhhorod before the Second World War. These are, in particular, the Neology Synagogue on the modern Zhupanatska Square, the Hasidic Synagogue on the modern Naberezhna Nezalezhnosti (next to it was a mikvah in 1908), the Falberman Synagogue (the only one still functioning on Mukachivska Street) and the Radvanska Synagogue. The latter is in the worst condition because in 1947 the Soviet authorities transferred it to the ownership of a woodworking factory.

of Laudon

Istvan Laudon founded the arboretum back in 1896 when he started planting exotic plants for Transcarpathia behind his house. The garden grew, went down the slope, and finally became a park, the territory of which occupied a considerable part of Uzhhorod.
After the Second World War, the park began to be fragmented. The soviet authorities decided to build premises for the People's Council, so the area of green spaces was significantly reduced, and many rare trees were cut down.
Currently, only a few fragments of the park remain in the city. The largest of them is the square of the Uzhhorod City Children's Hospital.
And the majesty of the once-beautiful arboretum is evidenced only by the information board and the mini-sculpture of

Istvan Laudon.

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